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Goal 13: Climate action

Take urgent action to combat climate change

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Global warming has already hit 1.1°C, due to increasing global greenhouse gas emissions, which reached record highs in 2021.

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The window to limit global warming to 1.5°C, as set out in the Paris Agreement, is narrowing. The average global temperature has already surpassed 1.1 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, leading to the melting of glaciers and a rise in sea levels. This has resulted in severe impacts such as flooding, droughts and displacement, pushing millions into poverty and hunger, exacerbating inequalities, and hindering economic growth.

To achieve SDG 13 and avert the worst impacts of climate change, global greenhouse gas emissions must peak before 2025 and then decline by 43 percent by 2030 and reach net-zero by 2050.


Countries are formulating climate action plans, but current commitments fall far short of the necessary measures.

What are NDCs?

Nationally determined contributions, or NDCs, are a critical part of the climate action equation. They are countries’ self-defined pledges under the Paris Agreement, detailing what they will do to help meet the global goal to limit global warming to 1.5°C, adapt to climate change impacts and ensure sufficient finance to support these efforts.

UNDP’s Climate Promise supports 85 percent of all developing countries on their NDC processes. Our analysis shows how developing and vulnerable countries are leading on climate ambition, actively taking measures to accelerate the implementation of their NDCs.